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蒸馏塔翻译

发布时间:2012-07-17 17:39:30
 

石油翻译,石化翻译,蒸馏塔翻译英译汉,中英对照翻译

根据以下经验规则,综合考虑产品纯度要求选取最佳流程方案:

Select the best process solutions in line with the following experience rules and taking the purity requirements on products into comprehensive consideration: 

  1. 应使各塔的塔顶馏出液摩尔数与塔釜馏出液的摩尔数尽量接近;

1. Make mole number of overhead distillate be close to that of stillage;

  1. 分离回收率要求很高的组分应放在塔序的最后;

2. Component of high requirements on separation recovery shall be put in the end of tower sequence;

  1. 按相对挥发度递减的顺序逐个从塔顶分离出各组分;

3. Separate all components from the tower top one by one in the order of descending relative volatility;

  1. 最难分离组分放在塔序的最后;

4. Put the components that are most difficult to be separated in the end of tower sequence;

  1. 进料中含量高的组分尽量提前分出;

5. Components with high content in charging shall be separately in advance;

  1. 强腐蚀性,热敏性,易燃易爆的组分应尽早分离。

6. Strong corrosive, heat-sensitive, inflammable and explosive components shall be separately as early as possible.

 

各流程方案优缺点分析如下:

Analysis on advantages and disadvantages of process solutions is as follows:

方案(a):该方案按相对挥发度递减的顺序逐个从塔顶分离出各组分,沸点低于常温的A组分(分离A组分必须在加压或使用特殊冷冻剂作为冷凝器的冷却介质)首先被分离出,使后续塔的流出液中均无更多低沸点组分存在,可节省操作费和设备费,但B,C组分相对挥发度接近于1,且两者均为主要产品,纯度要求较高,分离这两组分的精馏塔需要的塔板数较多,作为最难分离的组分放在中间位置处会增大塔径,设备费提高。      

Solution (a): All components are separately from the tower top one by one in the order of descending relative volatility, Component A (component A shall be taken as a cooling medium of the condenser separately under the condition of pressurization or use of special refrigerant) with the boiling point lower than normal temperature being separated first to make no more components with lower boiling point exist in the effluent liquid of the follow-up tower, thus saving the operation expenses and equipment fees. However, relative volatilities of Component B, C are close to 1, and both are main products, the requirements on purity are higher, therefore more number of plates are needed by the rectifying tower separating these two components. The tower diameter will be increased if they are put in the middle as components that are most difficult to be separated, and the equipment fees are increased.

方案(b):沸点低于常温的A组分首先被分离出,而且最难分离的组分放在了塔序的最后,从操作成本和设备费用方面考虑均非常合理。

Solution (b): Component A with the boiling point lower than normal temperature is separated firstly, and the components that are most difficult to be separated are put in the end of tower sequence, it is very reasonable considering operation costs and equipment fee.

方案(c):混合组分经两个塔后才得到A组分,会导致两塔的操作压力很高或两塔的塔顶冷凝器温度很低,此外,B,C难分离组分放在了第一个塔中分离,这都会提高设备费和操作费。

Solution (c): Component A is obtained after the mixed component passes through two towers, the operating pressure of two towers will be made too high or temperatures of overhead condensers too low, in addition, Component B, C which are difficult to be separated are put in the first tower, which will increase the equipment fees and operating expenses. 

方案(d):A组分经两塔后才被分离出,不过最难分离的组分B.C放在了塔顺的最后。

Solution (d): Component A is separated after passing through two towers, but the Component B, C which are most difficult to be separated are put in the end of the tower sequence.

方案(e):各组分是按相对挥发度递减的顺序逐个从塔顶分离的,这违背了塔的排序规则,使设备很不经济要消耗过多的资源。

Solution (e): all components are separately from the tower top one by one in the order of descending relative volatility, which goes against the sequencing rule of tower, being not economic and consuming more resources.

综上可判断,方案(b)为最佳方案。

In conclusion, solution (b) is the best.

选择方案(a)作为此次课程设计的工艺流程,并针对该方案作出最后综合分析。

Solution (a) is selected as the process flow of the course design and the final comprehensive analysis is made directing at the solution.

2.2装置工艺流程

2.2 Device Process Flow

2.2.1方案(a)工艺原则流程图(见图2.2)

2.2.1Process Flow Diagram of Solution (a) (see Fig. 2.2)

2.2.2工艺流程简述 Brief Description of Process Flow

混合轻烃原料经预热器以一定的温度压力首先进入液化气塔T-101,塔顶产品为液化气,塔底为B,C,D混合组分,该混合组分继续作为异戊烷塔T-201的原料,经过T-201的精馏分离在塔顶得到异戊烷产品,塔底的混合C,D组分再作为正戊烷塔T-301的进料,并在T-301的塔顶得到合乎要求的正戊烷产品,在塔底得到副产品D(混合环戊烷,正己烷)。

Mixed light hydrocarbon raw materials enter into the liquefied gas tower T-101 with certain temperature and pressure passing through the pre-heater, the top product is liquefied gas, mixed components of B, C and D are at tower bottom. The mixed component acts continuously as the raw material of isopentane tower T-201 and getting isopentane product at the tower top after distillation separation by T-201. Then the mixed components of C, D at the tower bottom act as charge of n-pentane tower T-301, the desirable n-pentane product can be obtained at the top of T-301 tower and by-product D (hybrid cyclopentane, n-hexane) can be obtained at the tower bottom.

Cooling water

Cooling water

Cold drainage

Vapor

Vapor

Vapor


 

2.3典型设备自控流程说明

2.3 Automatic Control Process Instructions of Typical Equipment :

1.离心泵Centrifugal Pump

离心泵流量自动控制最常用的方案是通过控制泵出口阻力来控制流量,如下图2.3.1所示,当干扰作用使流量发生变化(如流量变大)时,控制器发出控制信号,阀门动作(此时阀门变小),控制结果使流量回到给定值。

The most common solution for automatic control of centrifugal pump flow is outlet pressure of control pump, as is shown in Fig.2.3.1. When the flow changes (such as increment) due to interference effect, the controller will give out control signal, then the valve will motion (then valve shrinks then), the flow will return to the given value. 

2.换热器 Heat Exchanger

原料预热器通常采用调节换热介质(蒸汽)流量的办法,如图2.3.1。

Feed preheater usually adopts the method of regulating the flow of heat-exchanging medium (steam), as shown in Fig.2.3.1.

当工艺介质出口温度过高时,载热体进口处阀门开度变小,若出口温度变低,则阀门开度变大。

When the outlet temperature of process fluid is too high, the valve opening at inlet of heat-carrying agent is lessened, if the outlet temperature is decreased, then the valve opening is largened.

 

图2.3.1离心泵自动控制示意图图2.3.2 换热器自动控制示意图

Fig.2.3.1Schematic Diagram for Automatic Control of Centrifugal Pump

Fig.2.3.2Schematic Diagram for Automatic Control of Heat-exchanger

3.精馏塔

3. Rectifying tower

精馏塔的控制方案很多,基本形式通常只有两种。

There are many control schemes for rectifying tower, while basic modes are the following two:

(1)精馏塔的提馏段温控:提馏段温度作为衡量质量指标的间接指标,而以改变加热量作为控制手段,并保持回流量LR恒定。将提馏段温度恒定后,就能较好地保证塔底产品的质量达到规定值。

(1) Temperature control in stripping section of rectifying tower: Take the temperature in stripping section as the indirect parameter of quality index measuring and take the changing of heating quantity as control method, what’s more maintain the reflux quantity LR constant. After making the temperature in stripping section constant, it is possible to guarantee that the bottom product quality can reach regulated value.

(2)精馏塔的精馏段温控:以精馏段温度作为衡量质量指标的间接参数,而以改变回流量作为控制手段。

(2)Temperature control in rectifying section of rectifying tower: Take the temperature in rectifying section as the indirect parameter of quality index measuring and take the changing of reflux quantity as control method.

4.此次设计中精馏塔的自控方案分析如下:

Analyses on self-control scheme of rectifying tower in the design are as follows:

(1)T-101液化气塔:塔顶、塔底均含有所要求的产品,但塔底含有大量的后续产品,因此对提馏段的控制要求较高,此为因液相进料,提馏段温度控制比较及时,动作过程也较快,过T-101采用提馏段温控方案,分析如下:

用提馏段塔板温度控制加热蒸汽量,并保持回流量恒定;对塔底采出量和塔顶馏出液设有液位控制器进行均匀控制;设置流量定值调节系统来恒定进料流量;塔顶通过改变冷却水流量来调节塔顶压力(由于液化气中可能混有不凝气,设有不凝性气体放空系统:塔顶压力调节系统装有分程阀,一个装在冷却水管道上,另一个阀装在放空管道上);回流量采用流量定值调节,而且回流量应足够大,以便当塔的负荷最大时,仍能保持塔顶产品的质量指标在规定的范围内。

(1) T-101 liquefied gas tower: The tower top and bottom contain the required products, while the bottom contains large quantity of subsequent products, therefore requirements for the control in stripping section is higher. Because it is liquid feeding so temperature control in stripping section is relatively timely and also its motion process is faster. Following is the analysis of adopting the scheme of temperature control of T-101 tower in stripping section:

Use the plate temperate in stripping section to control heating steam quantity and maintain the reflux quantity constant; set level controllers to control withdrawal and distillate quantity of tower top evenly; set constant setpoint regulation system of the flow rate to make the feeding flow rate constant; By changing the flow rate of cooling water on tower top, pressure of tower top is regulated (as noncondensable gas maybe mixed in the liquefied gas so set a blowdown system of non-condensable gas: there is split-ranging valve in the pressure regulation system of the tower top, while one is set in the pipe of cooling water and the other valve is set on vent pipe line); Reflux quantity is regulated by adopting fixed setpoint flow rate, what’s more, shall be large enough so that the plate can maintain the bottom product index within certain scope when it bears the maximum load.

(2)T-201同样采用提馏段温控方案,理由及调节方式同上,只是在调节塔顶压力时采用了旁路的方法,可以减慢冷凝器的腐蚀与结垢。

(2) T-201 adopts the same scheme of temperature control in stripping section. Reason and regulating methods are the same as above, yet when adjusting the pressure on tower top, it adopts by-patch method which can slow down the corrosion and scale formation of the condenser.

(3)T-301塔顶为主要产品,采用提馏段温控方案,分析如下:

(3) Tower top of T-301 is the main products and adopt the scheme of temperature control in stripping section. The analyses are as follows:

调节塔顶回流量来控制精馏段塔板温度;再沸器加热量应保持一定,而且足够大,以便塔板在最大负荷时仍能保持塔底产品指标在一定范围内;塔顶采出量和塔顶馏出量设有液位控制器进行均匀控制;进料流量为定值控制;塔顶通过改变冷却水的流量调节塔顶压力。

Adjust quantity of reflux on the tower top to control the plate temperature in rectifying section; heating capacity of the reboiler shall be kept fixed, what’s more shall be large enough so that the plate can maintain the bottom product index within certain scope when it bears the maximum load; level controllers are set for to control withdrawal and distillate quantity of tower top evenly; charging flow rate is constant setpoint control; By changing the flow rate of cooling water on tower top, pressure of tower top is regulated.

注:在采用精馏段温控或提馏段温控时,为了提高测温仪表的灵敏度和调节精度,可将测温元件安装在塔顶以下或塔底以上几块塔板的灵敏板上,以灵敏的温度为被控变量。

Notes: When adopting temperature control in rectifying section or in stripping section, for improving the sensitivity and adjusting precision of temperature instruments, it is possible to install temperature element on the sensitive plate of several plates below or above the tower and take the sensitive temperature as manipulated variable.

石油翻译,石化翻译,蒸馏塔翻译英译汉,中英对照翻译

 

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