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清朝末年, 以张衡地动仪为代表的科学思路在海外得到发扬,诞生了现代地震学。

发布时间:2011-09-29 08:52:11
 

清朝末年, 以张衡地动仪为代表的科学思路在海外得到发扬,诞生了现代地震学。

1703年法国Feuille发明欧洲第一台地震仪器——水银验震器(Dewey, 1969)。1829年泊松(S.D. Poisson)奠定了地震波理论基础。1875年服部一三(于1880年任日本地震学会首届理事长)首先复原了张衡地动仪的外形(萩原尊礼,1982)。1883年英国人米尔恩(J. Milne, 1850-1913)在日本再次研究和复原了张衡地动仪(Milne,1883),遂于1892-1894年制成世界上第一台可在台站上普遍架设的水平摆地震仪并建设起世界地震台网,开创了现代地震学。Milne首先把《后汉书》中有关张衡地动仪的196个汉字译成英文介绍给全世界,并向西方宣布:“人类有史以来的第一架地震仪器是中国人张衡发明的”( Herbert- Gustar, 1980)。 

In the last years of the Qing Dynasty, the scientific train of thought represented by the seismograph of Zhang Heng was promoted overseas, and modern seismology came into being.

In 1703, Frenchman Feuille invented the first seismic instrument of Europe --- the mercury seismoscope ( Dewey, 1969). In 1829, S.D. Poisson laid the theoretical foundation of seismic wave. In 1875, for the first time, Fubu Yisan ( first president of Japan Seismic Institute in 1883) restored the exterior shape of Zhang Heng's seismograph ( Hagiwara Takahiro, 1982). In 1883, Englishman J. Milne ( 1850-1913) again studied and restored the instrument ( Milne, 1883), and then during 1892-1894, the first horizontal seismograph in the world that could be universally installed at any station was created and a global network of seismic stations was established, thus the founding of modern seismology. It was Mile who was the first to have translated the 196 Chinese characters recorded in the Book of the Later Han describing the seismograph by Zhang Heng into English and introduced it to the world, stating to the West that "It was a Chinese man called Zhang Heng who had invented the first seismograph in human history" ( Herbert-Gustar, 1980).

 

就在清王朝1894年败于中日甲午战争之时,法国人H. Gauthier在上海徐家汇天主教堂开始了地磁观测。1897年日本首先在台北架设了Milne新发明的地震仪(阿部胜征, 2000)。1904年,日本又在大连南山和上海徐家汇架设了大森( Omori)地震仪。

While the Qing Dynasty was defeated in the Jiawu War 1894, the Frenchman H. Gauthier began to carry out his geomagnetism observation in Xujiahui Catholic Church of Shanghai. In 1897, Japan first installed the seismograph newly invented by Milne in Taipei ( Abu Shengzheng, 2000). In1904, Japan installed the Omori Seismograph in the South Hill, Dalian, and Xujiahui, Shanghai.

德国于1909年在青岛建立了地震台( 中国地震局监测预报司,2005)。翁文灏(1889-1971)留学比利时,中国第一位地质学博士、首位地震学者,1912年回国开展科研。在中国处于半殖民地半封建满目疮痍、民不聊生的情况下,中国地震科学开始了艰难迈步(李善邦,1948)。

Germany established a seismic station in Qingdao in 1909 ( Division of Seismic Monitoring & Prediction, China Earthquake Administration, 2005). Weng Wenhao (1889-1971), who had studied in Belgium, became China's first Ph.D. in geology and the first seismological scholar and returned to China to conduct scientific research in 1912. In a China that was semi-colonial and semi-feudal, which bore war-torn signs everywhere and where the people found it hard to live on, China's seismology started its arduous journey ( Li Shanbang, 1948).

4.2 现代史时期——科学地震学的建立和发展

4.2 Contemporary period -- the establishment and development of the scientific seismology

中国的现代地震学研究取得了巨大进步。若以1966年邢台地震和2008年汶川地震为界,可划分成三个阶段,三代地震科学工作者承担了不同的历史使命:

In this period, China's modern seismological research made great headway. Divided by the earthquake of Xingtai in 1966 and that of Wenchuan in 2008, this period can be further divided into three phases with different historic missions for three generations of geologists to undertake.

(1)    奠基阶段

(1) Foundation-laying phase

辛亥革命后,南京中央政府实业部于1912年设立矿业司地质科,1913年改为地质调查所(所长丁文江),实业学校校长张鸿翼对同年12月21日云南7级地震第一次完成了地震调查。刘季辰对1917年安徽地震第一次绘制出了等震线图(刘季辰,1917)。李善邦1930年建立了北京观象台,金泳深1931年建立了南京地震台。

After the 1911 Revolution, the Industrial Ministry of Nanjing Central Government established a geological department under the Mining Division in 1912, changed in 1913 as a geological investigation agency ( headed by Ding Wenjiang ), and on December 21 of the same year, president of the College of Industry Zhang Hongyi finished his first investigation on the magnitude7 earthquake of Yunnan. The first isoseismal lines were drawn by Liu Jichen of the earthquake of Anhui, in 1917 ( Liu Jichen, 1917). In 1930, Li Shanbang set up the Beijing Observatory, and in 1931, Jin Yongshen established the Nanjing Seismic Station.

王应伟1931年完成了中国第一部地震学专著“近世地震学”(王应伟,1931)。1942年李善邦设计制造了中国人的第一台现代地震仪器(图7,李善邦,1945),命名为“霓式地震仪”以纪念翁文灏(字咏霓)。1944年傅承义成为中国首位地球物理学博士。1947年中国地球物理学会成立(理事长陈宗器)。全国解放前的地震专业人员仅有3名。

In 1931, Wang Yingwei finished China's first seismic monograph Modern Seismology ( Wang Yingwei, 1931). In 1942, Li Shanbang designed and made China's first modern seismic instrument ( Table7, Li Shanbang, 1945). In 1944, Fu Chengyi became China's first Ph.D. In geophysics. In 1947, the Institute of Geophysics of China was established (with Chen Zongqi as president). There were only three geological professionals before the Liberation of China. 

 

图7 中国人研制的第一台现代地震仪器(李善邦1939-1942研制)。

Fig. 7 The first seismograph designed by Chinese scientist S.P. Lee(made in 1939-1942)

 

新中国建立后的地震事业主要从4个方面开展了工作:地震工作纳入国家规划,设立研究机构培养专业人才,以编制地震区划图为中心的工程建设服务,创建全国地震观测系统。比如1953年中国科学院地震工作委员会成立。国家《1956-1967年科学技术发展远景规划》列入了地震灾害防御和地震预报的研究任务。

After the founding of the PRC, the seismic undertaking was carried out in four main aspects: bringing the seismic study into the national plan, establishing research institutions to train professionals, serving project construction centred around the compilation of seismic division maps, and establishing the national seismic observation system. For instance, in 1953, the Earthquake Working Committee, CAS was set up. And later, the national Perspective Plan for the Development of Science and Technology (1995-1967) was included into the research task of prevention of seismic disasters and seismic prediction.

中国科学院地球物理研究所于1950年建立(所长赵九章)。一批留学归国学者开始培养新中国的地震学专业人才。全国的地震、地磁台网建设和地震区划工作大规模开展等。上述的中国第一代地震学者们的艰苦努力奠定了科学研究的基础,他们的每一项工作都具有奠基的性质而为后人永远纪念。(卫一清等1993)

The Institute of Geophysics, CAS was established in 1950, headed by Zhao. A batch of Western returned scholars began to train seismological professionals for the newly established PRC. Nation-wide networks of seismic and magnetic observatories were developed, and the seismic division was carried out in a big scale. The hard effort by China's first generation of seismologists laid a foundation for scientific research, and each piece of their work, all foundation-laying in nature, was to be remembered by later generations. ( Wei Yiqing and others, 1993)

(2)   预报探索

 (2) Prediction exploration

1966年邢台大地震后,在周恩来总理的领导下我国进入地震预报的探索阶段。地震工作方针是:预防为主,专群结合,多路探索,加强地震预报和工程地震的研究,推进地震科技现代化。 1971年后中国地震局和省地震局相继建立。1979年中国地震学会成立(理事长顾功叙)。1998年《中华人民共和国防震减灾法》施行。2000年国务院提出了建立健全“地震监测预报、震害防御和应急救援”三大工作体系,实现了多次成功的试验性预报。

The Xingtai Earthquake 1966, under the leadership of Premier of Zhou Enlai, China's seismic prediction entered a phase of exploration. The guideline for the seismological work was: to give priority to prevention, to combine effort of professionals and the general public, to explore diverse ways, to strengthen research into seismic prediction and engineering seismology, and to promote the modernization of seismological science and technology. After 1971, the national seismic administration and provincial seismic bureaus were set up successively. In 1979, the Chinese Institute of Seismology was established, with Gu Gongxu as president. In 1998, the Law of People's Republic of China on the Earthquake Prevention and Relief came into effect. In 2000, the State Council called for the establishment and perfection of the three main working systems: "seismic monitoring and prediction, seismic protection and emergency rescue", which has proved to be successful in numerous trial forecasts.

此期间我国的地震科研主力是文化大革命当中和之前所培养出来的各类专业人才——中国的第二代地震学者,他们的历史功勋在于建立了中国地震监测预报的科学研究体系,是各相关领域的创业者,少数学者牺牲于地震中,终使我国的地震科学迅速达到了世界先进水平。地震系统的职工总数达约2万人。1975年海城地震的成功预报;1976年唐山地震的劫难又深刻地反映出地震预报的幼年特点。(孙其政等,2007)

The main force of China's seismic research in this phase were professionals of every categories trained during or before the Cultural Revolution. As China's second generation of seismologists, they made history by establishing China's scientific research system for seismic monitoring and prediction; they were pioneers in their areas, some died in earthquakes, and finally their effort has made China's seismology reach the world's advanced level. By then, the workers of the seismological institutions and units numbered some 20,000. The forecast of the sea earthquake of 1975 succeeded; the disaster of the earthquake of Tangshan in 1976 reflected the underdeveloped characteristics of the seismic prediction then.( Sun Qizheng and others, 2007)

(3)   探索研究新阶段

(3) New phase of exploration and research

  无论从任何一个角度上看,2008年8.0级汶川地震都会作为一个历史标志载入史册。它对中国地震科学研究所造成的巨大震撼和深刻影响,无论怎样评价都不会为之过分。学术界转入冷静反思与巨大调整中,人们回到了“地震能不能预报”的论争原点,一个新的历史阶段有可能会出现于不远的将来。《国家地震科学技术发展纲要(2007-2020)》的实施会促进这个新阶段的到来。人们期待文革后成长起来的新一代——中国的第三代地震学者,能够用地震预报的某种突破性进展来纪念邢台地震100周年。

Whatever the perspective, the magnitude 8.0 earthquake of Wenchuan in 2008 will come down in history as a historical mark. Whatever the appraisal of its tremendous shock and profound impact on China's seismological research, it will be no exaggeration. The academic world begins to calm down for reflection and make drastic adjustment, and finally people have returned to the departure point of dispute: "whether earthquake is predictable?" A new historical age is likely just around the corner. The implementation of the Outline of the Development of National Seismic Science and Technology 2007-2020 will make for the arrival of this new era. This new generation who have grown up after the Cultural Revolution -- China's third generation of seismologists are expected to observe the 100th anniversary of the Xingtai Earthquake by making some breakthrough in seismic prediction.

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