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康熙地震Earthquake during the reign of Emperor Kangxi

发布时间:2011-09-27 08:48:54
 

 康熙地震

3.3 Earthquake during the reign of Emperor Kangxi

中国地震科学史上的一件大事。清初,特别是顺康两朝(1644-1722年),欧洲已经完成了文艺复兴,走出了文化低谷。应康熙之邀,法国曾专门派出6位高级学者长住康熙宫廷。法、意、比等大量传教士的来华带来了西方的天文、数理和机械学的知识,对康熙帝的科学活动产生了重要影响。此期间大震频发,特别是三次8级以上大地震——1654年天水、1668年郯城和1679年三河平谷地震,都有数万人员的伤亡。最后一次事件造成了深远的社会影响,并有研究报告(邓中绵,1982),现称“康熙地震”。

This has been a major event in Chines history of seismic science. By the early days of the Qing Dynasty, especially by the reign of Emperor Shunzhi and Emperor Kangxi (1644-1722), Europe had gone through the Renaissance and out of its cultural low ebb. At the request of Emperor Kangxi, France once sent 6 advanced scholars who stayed for a long time in the royal palace. Great numbers of missionaries, coming from France, Italy, Belgium and other European countries to China , brought Western knowledge of astronomy, mathematics, physics and mechanics, which had a vital effect on the scientific activity of Emperor Kangxi. It was a period of frequent strong earthquakes, especially major ones of 8 magnitude or above, say the earthquake of Tianshui in 1654, of Tancheng in 1668, and of Pinggu, Sanhe, in 1679, all causing tens of thousands of casualties. The last one left profound and far-reaching social impacts, and there was research reports on it ( Deng Zhongmian, 1982). It is now called "Kangxi Earthquake".

康熙地震发生于9月2日,它的特殊性在于:中国历史上第一次在首都区域内发生8级大地震,前震活动明显,死亡5万人,故宫被损。其次是康熙采取了一系列非同寻常的果断措施。他在震后4小时内,召集了满汉高官研究地震对策,住进帐篷;第2天宣布赈恤灾民;第三天宣布他思虑的施政弊端;第五天宣布官员俸禄减半;十天内,拟出救灾同时搞肃贪的法规;十五天后中秋节,天坛祈祷后立刻再议震情,如此做法,亘古未有。

The earthquake happened on September 2. Its particularity lies in that: First, it was a magnitude-8 earthquake that had struck within the capital district in Chinese history, which preceded by obvious fore-shocks, killed 50,000 people and damaged the Imperial Palace. Second, Emperor Kangxi adopted an exceptional series of drastic measures. Within 4 hours after the earthquake, he gathered his high Manchu and Han officials to find out solutions, and he moved into a tent; on the second day, he issued an edict to distribute relief to earthquake victims; on the third day, he announced what he considered the administrative malpractice; on the fifth day, he ordered that the salaries of officials to be cut by half; on the tenth, he came up with an initial draft of law to carry out relief and corruption purge simultaneously; on the fifteenth at the Middle Autumn Festival, after spraying at the Temple of Heaven, the emperor immediately resumed discussion on the earthquake . Such measures had never been heard of before.

最后,一直喜爱数学的康熙帝把兴趣转向了地震,形成了自己的一套对地震的看法(邓中绵,1982)。他第一次坚决地否定了“以地震策免”高官的谬论,还写出了具有新思想的科学文章——《地震》,很多观点竟与现代地震学符合(图6)。

比如,康熙已经能判断出大震后的短期内不会再有大震:

Last, Emperor Kangxi, a lover of mathematics, began to shift his interest to earthquake, and formed this set of views on earthquake (Deng Zhongmian, 1982). He was the emperor who first resolutely disproved the absurdity of "dismissal of high officials for earthquake" and wrote a science essay of new thought "Earthquake" --- many views contained there should tally with those of modern seismology ( Table 6).

 

 

图6 康熙1721年所写的《地震》(刊于雍正10年编录的《御制文》第4集第30卷内)

 Fig.6  The article written by Emperor Kangxi (collected in Yuzhiwen Vol.3, No.30, 10th year of Yongzheng)

 

 

此文宣告了旧时代的结束,是作者所见的张衡以后一千多年间中国的水平最高的地震文章。

 

This essay, which sealed the end of an old age, is one of the highest level on earthquake I have read over the 1000-odd years since Zhang Heng.

4 第四阶段——科学探索

IV Fourth Stage -- Scientific exploration

康熙地震至今,以1911年辛亥革命为界可分成近代史和现代史两个时期。中国在震前异常现象的发现和地震预报的探索上都做出了杰出贡献,实现了地震物象学研究的重大飞跃。是时,欧洲在1830年后完成了工业革命,进入资本主义阶段。现代地震学在1900年前后起步,属于一个非常年青的新兴学科。

The years from the reign of Emperor Kangxi to now, with 1911 as the demarcation year, are divided into two periods: modern history and contemporary history. China made brilliant contributions to the discovery of abnormal pre-earthquake phenomena and exploration of seismic forecast, and achieved a great leap forward in seismic phenomenology. Meanwhile, by 1830, Europe had gone through the Industrial Revolution and entered the period of Capitalism. Modern seismology began around 1900, and is still a newly born rising science.

 

 

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