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第三阶段——感性认识III Third stage --- perceptual knowledge

发布时间:2011-09-08 22:44:40
 

 

366翻

第三阶段——感性认识

III Third stage --- perceptual knowledge

从三国开始(221年)到康熙帝(1722年),历时1500年。奠定了中国地震历史资料的基础。

中国的科学技术在宋元时期(10-14世纪)达到了世界遥遥领先的水平,同中国文化在几千年间一直呈连续发展的状态有关,为全世界仅有。不过中国的科学体系属唯象性或现象学(Phenomenology)范畴,以实用性为主导,针对特定需要解决具体问题 (李约瑟,1976;王鸿生,1996;池谷元伺,2000;杜石然,2003;王小甫等,2006)。这种思路是科学发展早期阶段的一种合理途径,非常必要而见效;但是实用性科学的眼光不够远大,知其然不知其所以然,一旦现实不提出直接要求就会丧失发展动力。此期间的地震研究,也一直持“重现象观察,薄技术提高,轻理性深入”的态度。

It was from 221 of the Three Kingdoms Period to 1500 of the reign period of Emperor Kangxi, spanning 1500 years, that the basis of China's historical data on earthquake was laid.

As part of the sustained development of Chinese culture over the past thousands of years, China had a comfortable lead in science and technology during the Song and Yuan Dynasties (10th -14th century), unmatched by any other nation. However, China's scientific system then belonged to the category of phenomenology, guided by practicability, and directed to provide solutions to particular problems (Joseph Needham, 1976; Wang Hongsheng, 1996; Ikeya, M., 2000; Du Shiran, 2003; Wang Xiaofu, 2006). In the early stage of scientific development, such train of thought was a reasonable approach not only necessary but effective; but this pragmatical science was near-sighted, satisfied with knowing the phenomena rather than what was behind them, and therefore once there was no direct request from reality it would lose drive. The attitude swayed the seismic study in this period was featured by a " bias in favor of observing phenomena against technical improvement and theoretical exporation".

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3.1迷茫的认识和天诫观的末日

3.1 Confused knowledge and the end of the view of heavenly condemnation

(北齐)信都芳、(隋)临孝恭、(宋)江少虞和(元)周密(1290年左右)在文字上涉及过张衡地动仪和地震观测问题,但均持怀疑态度。Xing Dufang in the Northern Qi Dynasty, Lin Xiaogong in the Sui Dynasty, Jiang Shaoyu in the Song Dynasty, and Zhou Mi in the Yuan Dynasty ( around 1290) all wrote something about the seismograph by Zhang Heng and issues of seismic observation, but they all held a sceptical attitude.

656年山西地震,唐高宗自责混淆了政治与佛教的关系而招致地震。不过佛教的法师并不认同,却把699年的洛阳地震看成佛祖如来显灵的好事。学者迷茫,皇帝糊涂。直到公元788年长安地震,唐德宗才以敷衍塞责结束了“地震罪己诏”的漫长历史。

When an earthquake struck Shanxi in 656, Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty issued a edict, stating "I confused the relation between politics and religon", to claim responsibility for the earthquake. But the Buddhist monks thought differently, deeming the earthquake of Luoyang in 699 as a good phenomenon as it resulted from Sakyamuni showing his presence.  Here scholars were baffled, and no wiser was the Emperor. It was not until after the earthquake of Chang'an in 788 when Emperor Dezong of the Tang Dynasty issued an edict of perfunctory self-incrimination that the long history of imperial "self-incrimination edict " came to an end.

 

 

 

宋朝是地震活动非常强烈的时期。999年地震后,虽有高官上疏乞求天子“降御礼,下德音”消震免灾,但无响应。1038年山西定襄地震死亡3.2万人,1057年北京地震死亡2.5万人,1219年宁夏固原地震死亡1万多人(李善邦,1981;顾功叙,1983)。宋元期间的高官,比如(宋)包拯、王安石、(元)齐履谦,只能继续以阴阳五行、开祭道场等办法来抚平民心。当1271年地震、1322年地震继续造成了严重损失后,官员惟有请辞谢罪,皇帝以“不允”二字草草收场。

The Song Dynasty was a period of exceptionally violent earthquake. After the earthquake in 999, though some official once reported to the emperor that "I have read about solar eclipses and earthquakes and the consequent imperial edicts in the Book of Han, " so he begged the emperor "to condescend to conduct ceremonies and issue generous edicts" to relieve earthquakes, yet such appeal met with no response. Earthquake killed 32,000 people in Dingxiang, Shanxi in 1038, 25,000 in Beijing in 1057 and over 10,000 in Guyuan, Ningxia in 1219 ( Li Shanbang, 1981; Gu Gongxu, 1983 ). High officials in the Song and Dynasties, say Bao Zheng and Wang Anshi in the Song Dynasty and Qi Lvqian in the Yuan Dynasty had to resort to time-honoured Yin & Yang trigrams and Taoist sacrificial rites to appease the people. Only after the 1279 and 1322 earthquakes which caused sever damages did the officials responsible plead guilty and ask for dismissal. The emperors wound up all these by simply saying NO to these dismissal applicants.

 

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